Zsh

Features || Shell overview || Differences between some shells || Tipp & Tricks || Module-Examples || Links


 One of the most religious choices UNIX/LINUX users do is the choice of shell. Users that are new to UNIX just accept the default shell, but as time goes and you get more advanced, you many want to change shell because you realy misses a certain feature. zsh is a great UNIX shell. It has all the benefits of other standard shells, and a hell of a lot more on top. I'm interested in the interactive features in particular, because they can save you a lot of time and effort. Yes! I'm a ZSH-Lover!
One area in which it is dramatically powerful is in its ability to interactively evaluate arguments. It can do command name completion, filename completion, and is extensible such that it can use programs to evaluate possible command completions.
It is highly configurable, has a lot of cool features that a lazy man like me likes. The only problem is that Bash is the standard shell and that Zsh is not installed everywhere, so I tried to use Bash for a day, and the missing cyclic completion made me run back to Zsh.

Features

For more informations take a quick look at the manpages:
$ man -k zsh
zsh                  (1)  - the Z shell
zshall               (1)  - the Z shell meta-man page
zshbuiltins          (1)  - zsh built-in commands
zshcompctl           (1)  - zsh programmable completion
zshcompsys           (1)  - zsh completion system
zshcompwid           (1)  - zsh completion widgets
zshcontrib           (1)  - user contributions to zsh
zshexamples          (1)  - some examples
zshexpn              (1)  - zsh expansion and substitution
zsh-lovers           (1)  - tips, tricks and examples for the Z shell
zshmisc              (1)  - everything and then some
zshmodules           (1)  - zsh loadable modules
zshoptions           (1)  - zsh options
zshparam             (1)  - zsh parameters
zshzftpsys           (1)  - zftp function front-end
zshzle               (1)  - zsh command line editor

Shell overview


A complete(?) list of al available shells
ash (ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/apps/tex/ntex/languages/)
a lightweight Bourne compatible shell. Great for machines with low memory, but does not provide all the extras of shells like bash, tcsh, and zsh
GNU Bash (http://www.gnu.org/software/bash/)
GNU Bourne-Again SHell - an sh-compatible command language interpreter that executes commands read from the standard input or from a file. Bash also incorporates useful features from the Korn and C shells
BUSH (http://www.pegasoft.ca/bush.html)
a powerful Linux/UNIX shell for designing secure, reliable shell scripts that can be later compiled as a fast executable programs
BSH (http://www.schellong.de/)
Note: Read http://members.pop-hannover.de/~ilse/bsh-programming-harmful.html (local copy)!
Cash (http://pauillac.inria.fr/cash/)
the Caml Shell from Bruno Verlyck
Clam Shell (http://www.cis.rit.edu/~sdlpci/Software/projects/#clam)
Clam Shell is a simple shell, made to be a testbed for user interface ideas. The name is sort of an acronym for "CSH-Like-Amiga-Modular Shell". It originally was going to be a testbed to see how the Amiga's "Assign" methodology for virtual/physical devices (like dh0:, sys:, files:, etc.) works in a *nix environment. I tried it out under another shell, but the project i was putting my code base into was extremely messy, and I wanted to have full control over the source...
csh (URL anyone?)
Note: Read http://www.faqs.org/faqs/unix-faq/shell/csh-whynot/
DASH (http://gondor.apana.org.au/~herbert/dash/)
DASH is a POSIX-compliant implementation of /bin/sh that aims to be as small as possible. It does this without sacrificing speed where possible. In fact, it is significantly faster than bash (the GNU Bourne-Again SHell) for most tasks.
Emacs Shell (http://www.newartisans.com/johnw/eshell.html)
Eshell is a command shell implemented entirely in Emacs Lisp. It invokes no external processes beyond those requested by the user. It is intended to be a functional replacement for command shells such as bash, zsh, rc, 4dos; since Emacs itself is capable of handling most of the tasks accomplished by such tools.
flash (http://www.netsoc.ucd.ie/flash/)
a (hopefully) secure shell which will only execute administrator defined programs, while also being very user friendly. Flash is fully windowed (using an ncurses interface), is driven by cursor keys, has hotkey support, has fascist logging support and more.
es (http://hawkwind.utcs.utoronto.ca:8001/mlists/es.html)
extensible shell from Paul Haahr and Byron Rakitzis
PDKSH (http://www.kornshell.com/)
Public Domain Korn Shell, also a complete, powerful, high-level programming language for writing applications, often more easily and quickly than with other high-level languages
Lash (http://lash.kerneled.com/)
a shell designed primarily for slow PCs that features modularity and simple built-in aliases. It also implements a history command, and includes colorful prompts and "callbex" (call before exec)
nadvsh (http://nadvsh.sourceforge.net/)
The New Adventure Shell is a shell script that will make your Un*x shell act like a text adventure game.
NR Shell (http://sf.gds.tuwien.ac.at/n/nr/nrsh/
a small shell for Linux systems that is a mix between command.com and bash
mud-shell (http://www.xirium.com/tech/mud-shell/)
TODO
osh (http://home.no.net/pusleole)
a lightweight unix shell
posh (http://packages.debian.org/unstable/shells/posh)
a stripped-down version of pdksh with several improvements that aims for compliance with Debian's /bin/sh policy, and few extra features
psh (http://www.focusresearch.com/gregor/sw/psh/)
Perl Shell - A fairly simple read-eval loop. The -w flag and 'use strict' are not employed so that the user is not bound by their stipulations. Setting $^W = 1 will turn on warnings, and calling '' will do the usual thing if called by the user
rc (http://www.star.le.ac.uk/~tjg/rc/)
a command interpreter and programming language similar to sh. The shell offers a C-like syntax (much more so than the C shell), and a powerful mechanism for manipulating variables. It is reasonably small and reasonably fast, especially when compared to contemporary shells
rss (http://www.cycom.se/dl/rrs)
Reverse Remote Shell: a reverse (connecting) remote shell. Instead of listening for incoming connections it will connect out to a listener (rrs in listen mode). The listener will accept the connection and receive a shell from the remote host. rrs features full pseudo-tty support, full OpenSSL support (high encryption, client/server authentication, choice of cipher suites), Twofish encryption, a simple XOR cipher, plain-text (unencrypted) session, peer-side session monitoring (snooping), daemon option and reconnection features
sash (http://www.canb.auug.org.au/~dbell/)
a stand-alone shell with many built-in commands
Scsh (http://www.scsh.net/)
a Unix shell embedded in Scheme. It provides full access to POSIX as well as extensions common to most Unix implementations
Tcsh (http://www.tcsh.org/)
C shell with file name completion and command-line editing. tcsh is an enhanced but completely compatible version of the Berkeley UNIX C shell (csh)
vimsh (http://users.adelphia.net/~bsturk/myprog.html)
an interactive shell buffer. It allows execution of shell commands in a vim buffer, without having to suspend the vim session
Woosh (http://wosx30.eco-station.uni-wuerzburg.de/~martin/woosh/)
an attempt at building an object-oriented shell
Zoidberg (http://zoidberg.student.utwente.nl/)
a modular perl shell. The plan is to create a modular oo-oriented perl program with the possibility to overload any function and load perl modules on runtime
Zsh (http://www.zsh.org/)
a shell designed for interactive use, although it is also a powerful scripting language. Many of the useful features of bash, ksh, and tcsh were incorporated into zsh; many original features were added

Differences between some shells

                                     sh   csh  ksh  bash tcsh zsh  rc   es
Job control                          N    Y    Y    Y    Y    Y    N    N
Aliases                              N    Y    Y    Y    Y    Y    N    N
Shell functions                      Y(1) N    Y    Y    N    Y    Y    Y
"Sensible" Input/Output redirection  Y    N    Y    Y    N    Y    Y    Y
Directory stack                      N    Y    Y    Y    Y    Y    F    F
Command history                      N    Y    Y    Y    Y    Y    L    L
Command line editing                 N    N    Y    Y    Y    Y    L    L
Vi Command line editing              N    N    Y    Y    Y(3) Y    L    L
Emacs Command line editing           N    N    Y    Y    Y    Y    L    L
Rebindable Command line editing      N    N    N    Y    Y    Y    L    L
User name look up                    N    Y    Y    Y    Y    Y    L    L
Login/Logout watching                N    N    N    N    Y    Y    F    F
Filename completion                  N    Y(1) Y    Y    Y    Y    L    L
Username completion                  N    Y(2) Y    Y    Y    Y    L    L
Hostname completion                  N    Y(2) Y    Y    Y    Y    L    L
History completion                   N    N    N    Y    Y    Y    L    L
Fully programmable Completion        N    N    N    N    Y    Y    N    N
Mh Mailbox completion                N    N    N    N(4) N(6) N(6) N    N
Co Processes                         N    N    Y    N    N    Y    N    N
Builtin artithmetic evaluation       N    Y    Y    Y    Y    Y    N    N
Can follow symbolic links invisibly  N    N    Y    Y    Y    Y    N    N
Periodic command execution           N    N    N    N    Y    Y    N    N
Custom Prompt (easily)               N    N    Y    Y    Y    Y    Y    Y
Sun Keyboard Hack                    N    N    N    N    N    Y    N    N
Spelling Correction                  N    N    N    N    Y    Y    N    N
Process Substitution                 N    N    N    Y(2) N    Y    Y    Y
Underlying Syntax                    sh   csh  sh   sh   csh  sh   rc   rc
Freely Available                     N    N    N(5) Y    Y    Y    Y    Y
Checks Mailbox                       N    Y    Y    Y    Y    Y    F    F
Tty Sanity Checking                  N    N    N    N    Y    Y    N    N
Can cope with large argument lists   Y    N    Y    Y    Y    Y    Y    Y
Has non-interactive startup file     N    Y    Y(7) Y(7) Y    Y    N    N
Has non-login startup file           N    Y    Y(7) Y    Y    Y    N    N
Can avoid user startup files         N    Y    N    Y    N    Y    Y    Y
Can specify startup file             N    N    Y    Y    N    N    N    N
Low level command redefinition       N    N    N    N    N    N    N    Y
Has anonymous functions              N    N    N    N    N    N    Y    Y
List Variables                       N    Y    Y    N    Y    Y    Y    Y
Full signal trap handling            Y    N    Y    Y    N    Y    Y    Y
File no clobber ability              N    Y    Y    Y    Y    Y    N    F
Local variables                      N    N    Y    Y    N    Y    Y    Y
Lexically scoped variables           N    N    N    N    N    N    N    Y
Exceptions                           N    N    N    N    N    Y    N    Y

Key to the table above.

   Y      Feature can be done using this shell.
          
   N      Feature is not present in the shell.
          
   F      Feature can only be done by using the shells function
          mechanism.
          
   L      The readline library must be linked into the shell to enable
          this Feature.
          
Notes to the table above

    1. This feature was not in the orginal version, but has since become
       almost standard.
    2. This feature is fairly new and so is often not found on many
       versions of the shell, it is gradually making its way into
       standard distribution.
    3. The Vi emulation of this shell is thought by many to be
       incomplete.
    4. This feature is not standard but unoffical patches exist to
       perform this.
    5. A version called 'pdksh' is freely available, but does not have
       the full functionality of the AT&T version.
    6. This can be done via the shells programmable completion mechanism.
    7. Only by specifing a file via the ENV environment variable.

Tips & Tricks

Unsorted/Misc examples || (Recursive) Globbing - Examples. || Modifiers usage || Redirection-Examples || ZMV-Examples


A collection of tips out of the mailinglists (zsh-users and zsh-workers), google, newsgroups or by myself. My favorite ZSH-Geeks are Andrew 'zefram' Main. Barton E. Schaefer, Peter Stephenson, Stéphane Chazelas, Sven Guckes, Thanks for your cool and incredible tips. I learned much from you!
You spotted a typo? An bug/error? Let me know! See http://www.strcat.de/contact.html for my GnuPG - Key and then send me an email.

Unsorted/Misc examples

# remove leading zeros
  $ var=00004402
  $ echo ${var##0#}
# or
  $ var=00004402
  $ echo ${var/(#m)<->/$((MATCH))}

# random numbers
  $ echo $[${RANDOM}%1000]     # random between 0-999
  $ echo $[${RANDOM}%11+10]    # random between 10-20
  $ echo ${(l:3::0:)${RANDOM}} # N digits long (3 digits)

# simplify and if then else
  $ if [[ "$LOGNAME" != davidr ]] ; then
         cd /o/inetpub/wwwdev/www.some.co.uk/epsystem/epadmin
    else
        cd /c/inetpub/wwwdev/www.some.co.uk/epsystem/epadmin
    fi
  $ cd ${${${LOGNAME:#davidr}:+/o}:-/c}/inetpub/wwwdev/www.some.co.uk/epsystem/epadmin
  or
  $ cd /$([[ "$LOGNAME" != davidr ]] && echo o || echo c)/inetpub/wwdev/blabla

# Show newest directory
  $ ls -ld *(/om[1])

# reverse a word
  $ echo "${(j::)${(@Oa)${(s::):-hello}}}"

# random array element
  $ FILES=( .../files/* )
  $ foobar feh $FILES[$RANDOM%$#FILES+1]

# cat first line in all files in this dir
  $ for file (*(ND-.)) IFS= read -re < $file

# test if a parameter is numeric
  $ if [[ $1 == <-> ]] ; then
	 echo numeric
     else
         echo non-numeric
     fi

# Show me all the .c files for which there doesn't exist a .o file.
  $ c=(*.c) o=(*.o(N)) eval 'ls ${${c:#(${~${(j:|:)${o:r}}}).c}:?done}'

# All files in /var/ that are not owned by root
  $ ls -ld /var/*(^u:root)

# All files for which the owner hat read and execute permissions
  $ echo *(f:u+rx:)

# The same, but also others dont have execute permissions
  $ echo *(f:u+rx,o-x:)

# brace expansion - example
  $ X=(A B C)
  $ Y=(+ -)
  $ print -r -- $^X.$^Y
  A.+ A.- B.+ B.- C.+ C.-

# Fetch the newest file containing the string 'fgractg*.log' in the filename and contains the string
# 'ORA-' in it
  $ file=(fgractg*.log(Nm0om[1])) 
  $ (($#file)) && grep -l ORA- $file
  # without Zsh
  $ files=$( find . -name . -o -prune -name 'fgractg*>log' -mtime 0 -print )
  > if [ -n "$files" ]; then 
  >    IFS=' 
  > '
  > set -f 
  > file=$(ls -td $files | head -1) 
  > grep -l ORA- "$file" 
  > fi

# keep specified number of child processes running until entire task finished
  $ zsh -c 'sleep 1 & sleep 3 & sleep 2& print -rl -- $jobtexts'

# Remove zero length and .bak files in a directory
  $ rm -i *(.L0) *.bak(.)

# print out files that dont have extensions
  $ printf '%s\n' ^?*.*
  $ printf '%s\n' ^?*.[^.]*(D)
  $ ls -d -- ^?*.*(D) 

# Finding files which does not contain a specific string
  $ print -rl file* | comm -2 -3 - <(grep -l string file*)'
  $ for f (file*(N)) grep -q string $f || print -r $f'

# Show/Check whether a option is set or not. It works both with $options as 
# with $builtins
  $ echo $options[correct]
  off
  $ $options[zle]
  on

# Count the number of directories on the stack
  $ print $((${${(z)${(f)"$(dirs -v)"}[-1]}[1]} + 1)) # or
  $ dirs -v | awk '{n=$1}END{print n+1}'

# Matching all files which do not have a dot in filename
  $ ls *~*.*(.)

# Show only the ip-address from ``ifconfig device''
  $ print ${${$(LC_ALL=C /sbin/ifconfig eth0)[7]}:gs/addr://} # ifconfig from net-tools (Linux)
  $ print ${$(/sbin/ifconfig tun0)[6]} # ifconfig from 4.2BSD {Free,Net,Open}BSD

# Ping all the IP addresses in a couple of class C's or all hosts into /etc/hosts
  $ for i in {1..254}; do ping -c 1 192.168.13.$i; done
  or
  $ I=1; while ( [[ $I -le 255 ]] ) ; do ping -1 2 150.150.150.$I; let I++; done
  or
  $ for i in $(sed 's/#.*//' > /etc/hosts | awk '{print $2}')
  : do
  :    echo "Trying $i ... "
  :    ping -c 1 $i ;
  :    echo '============================='
  : done

# load all available modules at startup
  $ typeset -U m
  $ m=()
  $ for md ($module_path) m=($m $md/**/*(*e:'REPLY=${REPLY#$md/}'::r))
  $ zmodload -i $m

# Rename all files within a directory such that their names get a numeral prefix in the default sort order.
  $ i=1; for j in *; do mv $j $i.$j; ((i++)); done
  $ i=1; for f in *; do mv $f $(echo $i| awk '{ printf("%03d", $0)}').$f; ((i++)); done
  $ integer i=0; for f in *; do mv $f $[i+=1].$f; done

# Find (and print) all symbolic links without a target within the current dirtree.
  $ $ file **/*(D@) | fgrep broken
  $ for i in **/*(D@); [[ -f $i || -d $i ]] || echo $i
  $ echo **/*(@-^./=%p)
  $ print -l **/*(-@)

# List all plain files that do not have extensions listed in `fignore'
  $ ls **/*~*(${~${(j/|/)fignore}})(.)
  # see above, but now omit executables
  $ ls **/*~*(${~${(j/|/)fignore}})(.^*)

# Print out files that dont have extensions (require setopt extendedglob dotglob)
  $ printf '%s\n' ^?*.*

# List files in reverse order sorted by name
  $ print -rl -- *(On)
  or
  $ print -rl -- *(^on)

# Synonymic to ``ps ax | awk '{print $1}'''
  $ print -l /proc/*/cwd(:h:t:s/self//)

# Get the PID of a process (without ``ps'', ``sed'', ``pgrep'', .. (under Linux)
  $ pid2 () {
  >   local i
  >   for i in /proc/<->/stat
  > do
  >   [[ "$(< $i)" = *\((${(j:|:)~@})\)* ]] && echo $i:h:t
  > done
  > }

# for X in 'n' 'o' 'p' 'q' 'r' 's' 't' 'u' 'v' 'w' 'x' 'y'; do ...
  $ for (( i = 36#n; i <= 36#y; i++ )); do
  >   print ${$(([##36]i)):l}
  > done
# or in combination with ``dc''
  $ print {$((##n))..$((##y))}P\ 10P | dc
# or with ``eval''
  $ eval print '${$(([##36]'{$((36#n))..$((36#y))}')):l}'

# foreach in one line of shell
  $ for f (*) print -r -- $f

# copy a directory recursively without data/files
  $ dirs=(**/*(/))
  $ cd -- $dest_root
  $ mkdir -p -- $dirs
# or without zsh
  $ find . -type d -exec env d="$dest_root" sh -c ' exec mkdir -p -- "$d/$1"' '{}' '{}' \;

# If `foo=23'', then print with 10 digit with leading '0'.
  $ foo=23
  $ print ${(r:10::0:)foo}

# find the name of all the files in their home directory that have more than 20 characters in their file names
  print -rl $HOME/${(l:20::?:)~:-}*

# Save arrays
  $ print -r -- ${(qq)m} > $nameoffile      # save it
  $ eval "m=($(cat -- $nameoffile)"            # or use
  $ m=("${(@Q)${(z)"$(cat -- $nameoffile)"}}") # to restore it

# get a "ls -l" on all the files in the tree that are younger than a specified age (e.g
# "ls -l" all the files in the tree that where modified in the last 2 days)
  $ ls -tld **/*(m-2)
# This will give you a listing 1 file perl line (not à la ls -R).
# Think of an easy way to have a "ls -R" style output with
# only files newer than 2 day old.
  $ for d (. ./**/*(/)) {
  >   print -r -- $'\n'${d}:
  >   cd $d && {
  >       l=(*(Nm-2))
  >       (($#l)) && ls -ltd -- $l
  >       cd ~-
  >   }
  > }
# If you also want directories to be included even if their mtime
# is more than 2 days old:
  $ for d (. ./**/*(/)) {
  >   print -r -- $'\n'${d}:
  >   cd $d && {
  >      l=(*(N/,m-2))
  >      (($#l)) && ls -ltd -- $l
  >      cd ~-
  >   }
  > }
# And if you want only the directories with mtime < 2 days to be listed:
  $ for d (. ./**/*(N/m-2)) {
  >   print -r -- $'\n'${d}:
  >   cd $d && {
  >      l=(*(Nm-2))
  >      (($#l)) && ls -ltd -- $l
  >      cd ~-
  >   }
  > }

# print 42 ``-''
  $ echo ${(l:42::-:)}
# or use ``$COLUMS''
  $ echo ${(l:$COLUMNS::-:)}
# and now with colors (require autoload colors ;colors)
  $ echo "$bg[red]$fg[black]${(l:42::-:)}"

# Redirect STDERR to a command like xless without redirecting  STDOUT as well.
  $ foo 2>>(xless)
# but this executes the command asynchronously. To do it synchronously:
  $ { { foo 1>&3 } 2>&1 | xless } 3>&1

# Rename all MP3-Files from name with spaces.mp3 to Name With Spaces.mp3
  $ for i in *.mp3; do
  >     mv $i ${${(C)i}:s/Mp3/mp3/}
  > done

# Match file names containing only digits and ending with .xml (requiresetopt kshglob)
  $ ls -l [0-9]##.xml
  $ ls -l <0->.xml

# Remove all "non txt" files
  $ rm ./^*.txt

# Move 200 files from a directory into another
  $ mv -- *([1,200]) /another/Dir

# Convert images (foo.gif => foo.png):
  $ for i in **/*.gif; convert $i $i:r.png

# convert a collection of mp3 files to wave or cdr (e.g. file.wav -> file.mp3)
  $ for i (./*.mp3){mpg321 --w - $i > ${i:r}.wav}

# Download with LaTeX2HTML  created Files (for example the ZSH-Guide):
  $ for f in http://zsh.sunsite.dk/Guide/zshguide{,{01..08}}.html; do
  >     lynx -source $f >${f:t}
  > done

# Move all files in dir1 and dir2 that have line counts greater than 10 to another directory say "/more10"
  $ mv dir[12]/**/*.cr(-.e{'((`wc -l < $REPLY` > 10))'}) /more10

# Make with dpkg a master-list of everyfile that it has installed
  $ diff <(find / | sort) <(cat /var/lib/dpkg/info/*.list | sort)

# Replace this fucking Escape-Sequences:
  $ autoload colors ; colors
  $ print "$bg[cyan]$fg[blue]You are a idiot" >> /dev/pts/3

# Get ASCII value of a character
  $ char=N ; print $((#char))

# Filename "Erweiterung"
# Note: The (N) says to use the nullglob option for this particular glob pattern.
  $ for i in *.o(N); do
  >     rm $i
  > done

# Rename files; i. e. FOO to foo and bar to BAR
  $ for i in *(.); mv $i ${i:l} # `FOO' to `foo'
  $ for i in *(.); mv $i ${i:u} # `bar to `BAR'

# Show all suid-files in $PATH
  $ ls -latg ${(s.:.)PATH} | grep '^...s'
# or more complex ;)
  $ print -l ${^path}/*(Ns,S)
# or show only executables with a user given pattern
  $ print -l ${^path}/*vim*(*N)

# gzip files when containing a certain string
  $ gzip ${(ps:\0:)"$(grep -lZ foobar ./*.txt(.))"}

# A small  one-liner, that reads from stdin and prints to stdout the first unique line
# i. e. does not print lines that have been printed before (this is similar to the unique 
# command, but unique can only handle adjacent lines).
  $ IFS=$'\n\n'; print -rl -- ${(Oau)${(Oa)$(cat file;echo .)[1,-2]}}

# Lists every executable in PATH
  $ print -l ${^path}/*(-*N)

# Match all .c files in all subdirectories, _except_ any SCCS subdirectories?
  $ ls **/*.c~(*/)#SCCS/*

# List all `README' - files case-insensitive with max. one typo
  $ ls **/*(#ia2)readme

# case insensitive checking for variables
  $ if [[ $OSTYPE == (#i)LINUX*(#I) ]]; then
  >    echo "Penguin on board."
  > else
  >    echo "Not a Linux."
  > fi

(Recursive) Globbing - Examples.

A list of valid glob Qualifiers can be found in zshexpn(1)
Note: **/ is equivalent to (*/)#! For example:
$ print (*/)#zsh_us.ps
zsh-4.2.3/Doc/zsh_us.ps
$ print **/zsh_us.ps
zsh-4.2.3/Doc/zsh_us.ps
# find all directories, list their contents and output the first item in the above list. 
  $ print -rl /home/me/**/*(D/e{'reply=($REPLY/*(N[-1]:t))'})

# List all files older than 15mins
  $ ls -ldrt -- *(mm+15)
# Just regular files
  $ ls -ldrt -- *(.mm+15)

# the age of the pointed to file for symlinks
  $ ls -Lldrt -- *(-mm+15)

# Use find(1) to find all directories except the ".svn" ones, then use grep on all *.c/*.h/*.S
# files in each directory.
  $ setopt extendedglob
  $ grep pattern (^.svn/)#*.[xhS](.)  # skips dot files and dot directories
# or - without Zsh
  $ find . -type d ! -name .svn | sed 's/./\\&/g;s|.*|grep whatever &/*.[xhS]|' | sh

# Quote from Usenet
# > I need to write a script that searches through a folder on my Linux
# > home server and copies only files where the width is greater than the
# > height, but it also needs to flatten the directory structure and
# > rename files as it copies.  So the first picture found may be several
# > directories deep in the source but this should be copied to the root
# > of the SD card and named say 00000001.JPG and the next file found
# > where width > height should be copied and renamed 00000002.JPG.
width_greater_than_height() {
  local w h
  identify -format '%w %h' ${1-$REPLY} |
    read w h && ((w > h))
}
typeset -Z8 i=0
setopt extendedglob
for f (**/*.(#i)jp(e|)g(D.+width_greater_than_height)) {
  ((i++))
  cp -- $f /path/to/dest/$i.JPG
}

# Search for `README' in all Subdirectories
  $ ls -l **/README

# find directories that contain both "index.php" and "index.html", or in general, directories
# that contain more than one file matching "index.*"
  $ ls **/*(D/e:'[[ -e $REPLY/index.php && -e $REPLY/index.html ]]':)
  # or
  $ ls **/*(D/e:'l=($REPLY/index.*(N)); (( $#l >= 2 ))':)

# Find command to search for directory name instead of basename
  $ print -rl /**/*~^*/path(|/*)
  # or - without Zsh
  $ find / | grep -e /path/ -e '/path$'

# Print he path of the directories holding the ten biggest C regular files in the current 
# directory and subdirectories. 
  $ print -rl -- **/*.c(D.OL[1,10]:h) | sort -u 

# Find files with size == 0 and send a mail
  $ files=(**/*(ND.L0m+0m-2)) 
  > (( $#files > 0 )) && print -rl -- $files | mailx -s "empty files" foo@bar.tdl

# recursive chmod
  $ chmod 700 **/(.) # Only files
  $ chmod 700 **/(/) # Only directories

# print out all of the files in that directory in 2 columns
  $ print -rC2 -- ${1:[...]}/*(D:t)
#            ^- number ob columns
# or - if you feel concerned about special characters - use
  $ list=(${1:[...]}/*(ND:t))
  $ (($#list)) && print -rC2 -- ${(V)list}

# Search all files in /home/*/*-mail/ with a setting ``chmod -s'' flag (recursive, include 
# dotfiles) remove the setgid/setuid flag and print a message
  $ chmod -s /home/*/*-mail(DNs,S) /home/*/*-mail/**/*(DNs,S))
# or with a small script
  $ for file (/home/*/*-mail(DNs,S) /home/*/*-mail/**/*(DNs,S)) {
  >    print -r -- $file
  >    chmod -s $file && print -r fixed $file
  > }
# or use ``zargs'' (require autoload zargs) prevent the arg list too long error
  $ zargs /home/*/*-mail(DNs,S) /home/*/*-mail/**/*(DNs,S)) -- chmod -s

# List files beginning at `foo23' upwards (foo23, foo24, foo25, ..)
  $ ls -l foo<23->

# get all files that begin with the date strings from June 4 through June 9 of 2004
  $ ls -l 200406{04..10}*(N)
# or if they are of the form 200406XX (require ``setopt extended_glob''
  $ ls -l 200306<4-10>.*

# remove spaces from filenames
  $ for a in ./**/*\ *(Dod); do mv $a ${a:h}/${a:t:gs/ /_}; done

# Show only all *.c and *.h - Files
  $ ls -l *.(c|h)

# Show only all *.c - files and ignore `foo.c'
  $ ls *.c~foo.c

# show data to *really* binary format
  $ zsh -ec 'while {} {printf %.8x $n;repeat 8 \
  > {read -ku0 a printf \ %.8d $(([##2]#a))};print;((n+=8))}' < binary

# Show only world-readable files
  $ ls -l *(R)

# List files in the current directory are not writable by the owner
  $ print -l ~/*(ND.^w)

# find and delete the files which are older than a given parameter (seconds/minutes/hours)
  $ rm -f /Dir/**/*(.mh+3)   # deletes all regular file in /Dir that are older than 3 hours
  $ rm -f /Dir/**/*(@mm+3)   # deletes all symlinks in /Dir that are older than 3 minutes
  $ rm -f /Dir/**/*(ms+30^/) # deletes all non dirs in /Dir that are older than 30 seconds
  $ rm ./**/*(.Dmh+1,.DL0)   # deletes all folders, sub-folders and files older than one hour
  $ rm -f **/*(mh+6)         # deletes all files more than 6 hours old 
  $ rm ./*(Om[1,-11])        # removes all files but the ten newer ones (delete all but last 10 files in a directory)
 Note: If you get a arg list too long, you use the builtin rm. For example:
  $ zmodload zsh/files ; rm -f **/*(mh+6)
  or use the zargs function:
  $ autoload zargs ; zargs **/*(mh+6) -- rm -f

# A User's Guide to the Z-Shell /5.9: Filename Generation and Pattern Matching
# find all files in all subdirectories, searching recursively, which have a given 
# name, case insensitive, are at least 50 KB large, no more than a week old and 
# owned by the root user, and allowing up to a single error in the spelling of 
# the name. In fact, the required expression looks like this:
  $ ls **/(#ia1)name(LK+50mw-1u0)

# Change the UID from 102 to 666
  $ chown 666 **/*(u102)

# List all files which have not been updated since last 10 hours
  $ print -rl -- *(Dmh+10^/)

# delete only the oldest file in a directory
  $ rm ./*filename*(Om[1])

# Sort the output from `ls -l' by file size
  $ ls -fld *(OL)

# find most recent file in a directory
  $ setopt dotglob ; print directory/**/*(om[1])

# Show only empty files which nor `group' or `world writable'
  $ ls *(L0f.go-w.)

# find - and list - the ten newest files in directories and subdirs (recursive)
  $ print -rl -- **/*(Dom[1,10])

# Print only 5 lines by "ls" command (like ``ls -laS | head -n 5'')
  $ ls -fl *(DOL[1,5])

# display the 5-10 last modified files
  $ print -rl -- /path/to/dir/**/*(D.om[5,10])

# find all files without a valid owner
  $ chmod someuser /**/*(D^u:${(j.:u:.)${(f)"$(</etc/passwd)"}%%:*}:)

# find all the empty directories in a tree
  $ for f in ***/*(/l2); do foo=($f/*(N)); [[ -z $foo ]] && print $f; done
# Note:Since Zsh 4.2.1(?) the glob qualifier F indicates a non-empty directory.
  Hence *(F) indicates all subdirectories with entries, *(/^F) means all subdirectories with no
  entries.
  $ ls -ld *(/^F)

# remove empty directories afterwards
  $ rmdir ./**/*(/od) 2> /dev/null

# Show only files are owned from group `users'
  $ ls -l *(G[users])

Modifiers usage

Modifiers are a powerful mechanism that let you modify the results returned by parameter, filename and history expansion. See zshexpn(1) for details.
# Remove a trailing pathname component, leaving the head. This works like `dirname'.
  $ echo =ls(:h)
  /bin

# Remove all leading pathname components, leaving the tail. This works like `basename'.
  $ echo =ls(:t)
  ls

# Remove the suffix from each file (*.sh in this example)
   $f:e is $f file extension
   :h --> head (dirname)
   :t --> tail (basename)
   :r --> rest (extension removed) 
  $ for f (*.sh) mv $f $f:r

# Remove a filename extension of the form `.xxx', leaving the root name.
  $ echo $PWD
  /usr/src/linux
  $ echo $PWD:t
  linux

# Remove all but the extension.
  $ foo=23.42
  $ echo $foo
  23.42
  $ echo $foo:e
  42

# Print the new command but do not execute it. Only works with history expansion.
  $ echo =ls(:h)
  /bin
  $ !echo:p
  $ echo =ls(:h)

# Quote the substituted words, escaping further substitutions.
  $ bar="23'42"
  $ echo $bar
  23'42
  $ echo $bar:q
  23\'42

# Convert the words to all lowercase.
  $ bar=FOOBAR
  $ echo $bar
  FOOBAR
  $ echo $bar:l
  foobar

# Convert the words to all uppercase.
  $ bar=foobar
  $ echo $bar
  foobar
  $ echo $bar:u
  FOOBAR

# convert 1st char of a word to uppercase
  $ foo="one two three four"
  $ print -r -- "${(C)var}"
  One Two Three Four

Redirection-Examples

(see zshmisc(1) for more informations (or less ${^fpath}/zmv(N))
# Append `exit 1' at the end of all *.sh - files
  $ echo "exit 1" >> *.sh

# adding files to foobar.tar.gz
  $ eval set =(gunzip < foobar.tar.gz) '
     tar rf $1 additional.txt &&gzip < $1 > foobar.tar.gz'

# Redirect output to a file AND display on screen
  $ foobar >&1 > file1 > file2 > ..

# pipe single output to multiple inputs
  $ zcat foobar.Z >> (gzip -9 > file1.gz) \
		  >> (bzip2 -9 > file1.bz2) \
		  >> (acb --best > file1.acb)

# Append /etc/services at the end of file `foo' and `bar'
  $ cat /etc/services >> foo >> bar

# Pipe STDERR
  $ echo An error >&2 2>&1 | sed -e 's/A/I/'

# send standard output of one process to standard input of several processes in the pipeline
  $ setopt multios
  $ process1 > >(process1) > >(process2)

# initializing a variable and simultaneously keeping terminal output 
  $ setopt multios
  $ { a=$(command >&1 >& 3 3 > &- 2>&1);} 3>&1 

# redirect stderr two times
  $ setopt multios ; program 2> file2 > file1 2>&1

# Duplicating stdout and stderr to a logfile
  $ exec 3>&1 > logfile 2>&2 2>&1 >&3 3>&-

# redirect stderr (only) to a file and to orig. stderr:
  $ command 2>&2 2>stderr
# redirect stderr and stdout to separate files and both to orig. stdout:
  $ command 2>&1 1>&1 2>stderr 1>stdout
# redirect stderr and stdout to separate files and stdout to orig. stdout AND stderr to orig. stderr:
  $ command 2>&2 1>&1 2>stderr 1>stdout

# More fun with STDERR ;)
  $ ./my-script.sh 2> >(grep -v moron >error.log) | process-output > output.log
  $  echo "Thats STDOUT" >>(sed 's/stdout/another example/' > foobar)

ZMV-Examples (require autoload zmv)

Note: ``-n'' means no execution (just print what would happen)
# rename a section of a filename, i. e. example.1.{txt,conf,db} or 12345.1.{wav,ogg,mp3} and
# change the 1 to a 2 in the filename while preserving the rest of it. 
  $ zmv -n '(*.)(<->)(.[^.]#)' '$1$(($2+1))$3' # would rename x.0001.y to x.2.y.
  $ zmv -n '(*.0#)(<->)(.[^.]#)' '$1$(($2+1))$3'

# Rename files to lower case
  $ zmv '*' '${(L)f}'

# serially all files (foo.foo > 1.foo, fnord.foo > 2.foo, ..)
  $ autoload zmv
  $ ls *
  1.c  asd.foo  bla.foo  fnord.foo  foo.fnord  foo.foo
  $ c=1 zmv '*.foo' '$((c++)).foo'
  $ ls *
  1.c  1.foo  2.foo  3.foo  4.foo  foo.fnord

# Rename "file.with.many.dots.txt" by substituting dots (exept for the last 
# one!) with a space
  $ touch {1..20}-file.with.many.dots.txt
  $ zmv '(*.*)(.*)' '${1//./ }$2'

# Remove the first 4 chars from a filename
  $ zmv -n '*' '$f[5,-1]' # NOTE: The "5" is NOT a mistake in writing!

# Rename names of all files under the current Dir to lower case, but keep Dir names as-is. 
  $ zmv -Qv '(**/)(*)(.D)' '$1${(L)2}' 

# replace all 4th character, which is "1",  with "2" and so on
  $ autoload -U zmv
  $ zmv '(???)1(???[1-4].txt)' '${1}2${2}'

# Remove the first 15 characters from a string
  $ touch 111111111111111{a-z}
  $ autoload zmv
  $ zmv '*' '$f[16,-1]'

# Replace spaces (any number of them) with a single dash in file names
  $ autload zmv
  $ zmv -n '(**/)(* *)' '$1${2//( #-## #| ##)/-}' 
  # or - with Bash
  $ find . -depth -name '* *' -exec bash -c ' 
  > shopt -s extglob 
  > file=$1
  > dir=${file%/*} 
  > name=${file##*/}
  > newname=${name//*([ -]) *([ -])/-}
  > mv -i -- "$file" "$Dir/$newname"' {} {} \; 

# Clean up file names and remove special characters
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ zmv -n '(**/)(*)' '$1${2//[^A-Za-z0-9._]/_}' 

# Add *.py to a bunch of python scripts in a directory (some of them end in *.py and give them
# all a proper extension
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ zmv -n '(**/)(con*)(#qe,file $REPLY | grep "python script",)' '$1$2.py'

# lowercase all extensions (i. e. *.JPG) incl. subfolders
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ zmv '(**/)(*).(#i)jpg' '$1$2.jpg'
  # Or - without Zsh
  $ find Dir -name '*.[jJ][pP][gG]' -print | while read f
  > do
  >      case $f in
  >       *.jpg) ;
  >       *) mv "$f" "${f%.*}.jpg" ;
  >       esac
  > done

# remove leading zeros from file extension
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ ls
  filename.001  filename.003  filename.005  filename.007  filename.009
  filename.002  filename.004  filename.006  filename.008  filename.010
  $ zmv '(filename.)0##(?*)' '$1$2'
  $ ls
  filename.1  filename.10  filename.2  filename.3  filename.4  filename.5  filename.6 ...

# renumber files. 
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ ls *
  foo_10.jpg  foo_2.jpg  foo_3.jpg  foo_4.jpg  foo_5.jpg  foo_6.jpg  foo_7.jpg  foo_8.jpg  foo_9.jpg
  $ zmv -fQ 'foo_(<0->).jpg(.nOn)' 'foo_$(($1 + 1)).jpg'
  $ ls *
  foo_10.jpg  foo_11.jpg  foo_3.jpg  foo_4.jpg  foo_5.jpg  foo_6.jpg  foo_7.jpg  foo_8.jpg foo_9.jpg

# adding leading zeros to a filename (1.jpg -> 001.jpg, ..  
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ zmv '(<1->).jpg' '${(l:3::0:)1}.jpg'

# See above, but now only files with a filename >= 30 chars
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ c=1 zmv "${(l:30-4::?:)}*.foo" '$((c++)).foo'

# Replace spaces in filenames with a underline
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ zmv '* *' '$f:gs/ /_'

# Change the suffix from *.sh to *.pl
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ zmv -W '*.sh' '*.pl'

# Add a "".txt" extension to all the files within ${HOME}
  # ``-.'' is to only rename regular files or symlinks to regular files,
  # ``D'' is to also rename hidden files (dotfiles))
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ zmv -Q '/home/**/*(D-.)' '$f.txt'
  # Or to only rename files that don't have an extension:
  $ zmv -Q '/home/**/^?*.*(D-.)' '$f.txt'

# Recursively change filenames with characters ? [ ] / = + < > ; : " , - *
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ chars='[][?=+<>;",*-]'
  $ zmv '(**/)(*)' '$1${2//$~chars/%}'

# Removing single quote from filenames (recursively)
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ zmv -Q "(**/)(*'*)(D)" "\$1\${2//'/}"

# When a new file arrives (named file.txt) rename all files in order to get (e. g.
# file119.txt becomes file120.txt, file118.txt becomes file119.txt and so on ending 
# with file.txt becoming file1.txt
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ zmv -fQ 'file([0-9]##).txt(On)' 'file$(($1 + 1)).txt'

# lowercase/uppercase all files/directories
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ zmv '(*)' '${(L)1}' # lowercase
  $ zmv '(*)' '${(U)1}' # uppercase

# Remove the suffix *.c from all C-Files
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ zmv '(*).c' '$1'

# Uppercase only the first letter of all *.mp3 - files
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ zmv '([a-z])(*).mp3' '${(C)1}$2.mp3'

# Copy the target `README' in same directory as each `Makefile'
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ zmv -C '(**/)Makefile' '${1}README'

# Removing single quote from filenames (recursively)
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ zmv -Q "(**/)(*'*)(D)" "\$1\${2//'/}"

# Rename pic1.jpg, pic2.jpg, .. to pic0001.jpg, pic0002.jpg, ..
  $ autoload zmv 
  $ zmv 'pic(*).jpg' 'pic${(l:4::0:)1}.jpg'
  $ zmv '(**/)pic(*).jpg' '$1/pic${(l:4::0:)2}.jpg' # recursively


Module-Examples (see zshmodules(1) for details)

zsh/pcre || zsh/clone || zsh/datetime || zsh/stat || zsh/files || zsh/mapfile || zsh/mathfunc || zsh/termcap || zsh/zpty || zsh/net/socket || zsh/zftp || zsh/zselect


zsh/pcre (require zmodload zsh/pcre)

Interface to the PCRE library
# Copy files of a certain period (date indicated in the filenames)
  $ zmodload zsh/pcre 
  $ ls -d -- *(e:'[[ $REPLY -pcre-match pcre-regexp ]]':) 
  # or
  $ m() { [[ $1 -pcre-match pcre-regexp ]] }
  $ ls -d -- *(+m)

zsh/clone (require zmodload zsh/clone)

A builtin that can clone a running shell onto another terminal.
# Creates a forked instance of the current shell ($! is set to zero) and 
# execute ``command'' on /dev/tty8 (for this example).
  $ zmodload zsh/clone
  $ clone /dev/tty8 && (($! == 0)) && exec command

zsh/datetime (require zmodload zsh/datetime)

Some date/time commands and parameters.
# Finding yesterdays date
  $ zsh -c 'zmodload zsh/datetime
  >      strftime %c $((EPOCHSECONDS-86400))'

  $ zmodload zsh/datetime
  $ alias datereplacement='strftime "%Y-%m-%d" $EPOCHSECONDS'
  $ export DATE=`datereplacement`
  $ echo $DATE

#  strip date from filename
  $ $ zmodload zsh/datetime
  $ setopt extendedglob
  $ touch aaa_bbb_20041212_c.dat eee_fff_20051019_g.dat
  $ strftime -s pattern '???_???_<0-%Y%m%d>_?.dat' $((EPOCHSECONDS - 365 * 24 * 60 * 60 / 2))
  $ print -rl -- $~pattern
  aaa_bbb_20041212_c.dat
  $ print -rl -- $pattern 
  ???_???_<0-20050815>_?.dat

# Search files size == 0, to be based on the file name containing a date rather than the "last
# modified" date of the file
  $ zmodload -i zsh/datetime 
  $ strftime -s file "abc_de_%m%d%Y.dat" $((EPOCHSECONDS - 24 * 60 * 60 )) 
  $ files=(**/$file(N.L0)) 
  $ (( $#files > 0 )) && print -rl -- $files | mailx -s "empty files"  foo@bar.tdl  
  

zsh/stat (require zmodload zsh/stat)

A builtin command interface to the stat system call.
# comparing file dates
  $ zmodload zsh/stat
  $ file1=foo
  $ file2=bar
  $ touch bar & sleep 5 & touch foo
  $ echo $file1 is $(( $(stat +mtime $file2) - $(stat +mtime $file1) )) seconds older than $file2.
  bar is 5 seconds older than foo

# list the files of a disk smaller than some other file
  $ zmodload zsh/stat
  $ stat -A max +size some-other-file
  $ print -rl ./**/*(D.L-$max)

# List the top 100 biggest files in a disk
  $ zmodload zsh/stat
  $ ls -fld ./**/*(d`stat +device .`OL[1,100])

# Get only the user name and the file names from (like ls -l * | awk '{print $3" " $8}')
  $ zmodload zsh/stat
  $ for file; do
  >   stat -sA user +uid -- "$file" &&
  >     print -r -- "$user" "$file"
  > done

# get the difference between actual bytes of file and allocated bytes of file
  $ zmodload zsh/stat
  $ print $(($(stat +block -- file) * 512 - $(stat +size -- file)))

# Find largest file
# ``D''  : to include dot files (d lowercase is for device)
# ``O''  : reverse Ordered (o lowercase for non-reverse order)
# ``L''  : by file Length (l is for number of links)
# ``[1]'': return only first one
  $ zmodload zsh/stat
  $ stat +size ./*(DOL[1])

# file size in bytes
  $ zmodload zsh/stat
  $ stat -L +size ~/.zshrc
  4707

# Delete files in a directory that hasn't been accessed in the last ten days
# and send ONE mail to the owner of the files informing him/her of the files' deletion.
  $ zmodload zsh/stat zsh/files
  $ typeset -A f; f=()
  $ rm -f /path/**/*(.a+10e{'stat -sA u +uidr $REPLY; f[$u]="$f[$u]$REPLY"'})
  $ for user (${(k)f}) {print -rn $f[$user]|mailx -s "..." $user}

# Get a "ls -l" on all the files in the tree that are younger than a specified age
  $ zmodload zsh/stat
  $ for d (. ./**/*(N/m-2))
  >   print -r -- $'\n'$d: && cd $d && {
  >      for f (*(Nm-2om))
  >   stat -F '%b %d %H:%M' -LsAs -- $f &&
  >   print -r -- $s[3] ${(l:4:)s[4]} ${(l:8:)s[5]} \
  >   ${(l:8:)s[6]} ${(l:8:)s[8]} $s[10] $f ${s[14]:+-> $s[14]}
  >   cd ~-
  > }

# get file creation date
  $ zmodload zsh/stat
  $ stat -F '%d %m %Y' +mtime ~/.zshrc
  30 06 2004
  $ stat -F '%D' +mtime ~/.zshrc
  06/30/04 

zsh/files (require zmodload zsh/files)

Some basic file manipulation commands as builtins.
# search a directory for files containing a certain string then copy those files to another directory.
  $ zmodload zsh/files
  $ IFS=$'\0'
  $ cp $(grep -lZr foobar .) otherdirectory

zsh/mapfile (require zmodload zsh/mapfile)

Access to external files via a special associative array.
# grepping for two patterns
  $ zmodload zsh/mapfile
  $ pattern1="foo"
  $ pattern2="bar foo"
  $ print -l ./**/*(DN.e{'z=$mapfile[$REPLY] && [[ $z = *$pattern1* && $z = *$pattern2* ]]'})
# or a solution in combination with zsh/pcre
  $ zmodload -i zsh/mapfile zsh/pcre
  $ pattern1="foo"
  $ pattern2="bar foo"
  $ pcre_compile "(?s)(?=.*?$pattern1).*?$pattern2"
  $ pcre_study
  $ print -l ./**/*(DN.e{'pcre_match $mapfile[$REPLY]'})

# equivalent for ``less /etc/passwd | grep -v root''
  $ zmodload zsh/mapfile
  $ IFS=$'\n\n'
  $ print -rl -- ${${=mapfile[/etc/passwd]}:#*root*}
# or - for case insensitive
  $ setopt extendedglob
  $ print -rl -- ${${=mapfile[/etc/passwd]}:#*(#i)root*}

# If a XML-file contains stuff like ``<TAGA/>'' and ``<TAGB/>'', number this empty tags
# (ones ending in '/>') so if encountered in the same order, the preceeding tags would become
# ``<TAGA/>1</TAGA>'' and ``<TAGB/>2</TAGB>''
  $ zmodload zsh/mapfile
  $ cnt=0
  $ apfile[data.xml.new]=${(S)mapfile[data.xml]//\
  > (#im)<TAGA>*<\/TAGA>/<TAGA>$((++cnt))<\/TAGA>}

# removing all files in users Maildir/new that contain ``filename="gone.src''
  $ zmodload zsh/{files,mapfile}
  $ rm -f /u1/??/*/Maildir/new/100*(.e{'[[ $mapfile[$REPLY] == *filename=\"gone.scr\"* ]]'})

# Grep out the Title from a postscript file and append that value to the end of
# the filename
  $ autoload -U zmv
  $ zmodload zsh/mapfile
  $ zmv '(*).ps' '$1-${${${mapfile[$f]##*%%Title: }%% *}//[^a-zA-Z0-9_]/}.ps'

zsh/mathfunc (require zmodload zsh/mathfunc)

Standard scientific functions for use in mathematical evaluations.
$ zmodload zsh/mathfunc
$ echo $(( sin(1/4.0)**2 + cos(1/4.0)**2 - 1 ))
  -1.1102230246251565e-16
$ echo $(( pi = 4.0 * atan(1.0) )) 
  3.1415926535897931
$ echo $(( f = sin(0.3) ))
  0.29552020666133955
$ print $((1e12 * rand48()))
  847909677310.23413
$ print $(( rand48(seed) ))
  0.01043488334700271

zsh/termcap (require zmodload zsh/termcap)

Interface to the termcap database.
 $ zmodload -ab zsh/termcap echotc
 $ GREEN=`echotc AF 2`
 $ YELLOW=`echotc AF 3`
 $ RED=`echotc AF 1`
 $ BRIGHTRED=`echotc md ; echotc AF 1`
 $ print -l ${GREEN}green ${YELLOW}yellow ${RED}red ${BRIGHTRED}brightred

zsh/zpty (require zmodload zsh/zpty)

A builtin for starting a command in a pseudo-terminal.
  $ zmodload zsh/zpty
  $ zpty PW passwd $1
  $ zpty PW passwd $1
# ``-r'': read the output of the command name.
# ``z'' : Parameter
  $ zpty -r PW z '*password:'
# send the to command name the given strings as input
  $ zpty -w PW $2
  $ zpty -r PW z '*password:'
  $ zpty -w PW $2
# The second form, with the -d option, is used to delete commands
# previously started, by supplying a list of their names. If no names
# are given, all commands are deleted. Deleting a command causes the HUP
# signal to be sent to the corresponding process.
  $ zpty -d PW

zsh/net/socket (require zmodload zsh/net/socket)

Manipulation of Unix domain sockets.
# ``-l'': open a socket listening on filename
# ``-d'': argument will be taken as the target file descriptor for the
#         connection
# ``3'' : file descriptor. See ``A User's Guide to the Z-Shell''
#         (3.7.2: File descriptors)
  $ zmodload zsh/net/socket
  $ zsocket -l -d 3
# ``-a'': accept an incoming connection to the socket
  $ zsocket -a -d 4 3
  $ zsocket -a -d 5 3 # accept a connection
  $ echo foobar >&4
  $ echo barfoo >&5
  $ 4>&- 5>&- 3>&

zsh/zftp

A builtin FTP client.
 $ autoload -U zfinit
 $ zfinit  
 $ zfparams www.example.invalid myuserid mypassword
 $ zfopen 
 $ zfcd tips
 $ zfls -l zshtips.html
 $ zfput zshtips.html
 $ zfls -l zshtips.html

# Automatically transfer files using FTP with error checking
  $ autoload -U zfinit ; zfinit
  $ zftp open host.name.invalid user passwd || exit
  $ zftp get /remote/file > /local/file; r=$?
  $ zftp close && exit r

# compress and ftp on the fly
  $ autoload -U zfinit ; zfinit
  $ zftp open host.name.invalid user password
  $ zftp get $file | bzip2 > ${file}.bz2
  $ zftp close

# Recursice ``get''
  $ autoload -U zfinit ; zfinit
  $ zfanon cr.yp.to
  $ zfcd daemontools
  $ for file in `zfls` ; do
  >     zfget $file
  $ done
  $ zfclose

# Upload all regular files in $HOME/foobar (recursive) that are newer than two hours 
# to ftp.foobar.invalid/path/to/upload
  $ autoload -U zfinit ; zfinit
  $ zfopen ftp.foobar.invalid/path/to/upload
  $ cd $HOME/foobar
  $ zfput -r **/*(.mh-2)
  $ zfclose

# long list of files on a ftp
  $ autoload -U zfinit ; zfinit
  $ zfopen some-host
  $ zfcd /some/remote/Dir
  $ cd /some/local/Dir
# If the list.txt is located on the remote host, change to
# zfget ${(f)"$(zftp get /path/to/remote/list.txt)"}
  $ zfget ${(f)"$(cat list.txt)"}
  $ zfclose

zsh/zselect (require zmodload zsh/zselect)

Block and return when file descriptors are ready.
# It's similar to
 ,----
 | $ sg=$(stty -g)
 | $ stty -icanon min 0 time 50
 | $ read yesno
 | $ stty "$sg"
 | $ case "$yesno" in
 | >  yes) command1;;
 | >  *) command2;;
 | > esac
 `----
$ zmodload zsh/zselect
$ if zselect -t 500 -r 0 && read yesno && [ yes = "$yesno" ]; then
>    command1
> else
>    command1
> fi

Links to other Pages (Zsh specific informations)


Primary site
http://www.zsh.org
Project-page
http://sourceforge.net/projects/zsh/
Z shell page at sunsite.dk
http://zsh.sunsite.dk/
Mailinglistarchive
http://www.zsh.org/mla/
ZSH-FAQ
http://www.zsh.org/FAQ/
Userguide
http://zsh.sunsite.dk/Guide/
ZSH-Wiki
http://www.zshwiki.org/
Die Zsh als interaktive Shell
http://cssun.rrze.uni-erlangen.de/~sipakale/zshreferat.html
A short introduction from BYU
http://docs.cs.byu.edu/index.php/ZSH
Mouse-Support ;)
http://stchaz.free.fr/mouse.zsh
Shell Corner: Zsh Suite of "keeper" Functions
http://www.unixreview.com/documents/s=9513/ur0501a/ur0501a.htm
The Z Shell (A Fan Page)
http://www.princeton.edu/~kmccarty/zsh.html
Making the Transition to Zsh
http://www.linux-mag.com/cgi-bin/printer.pl?issue=2002-05&article=power
Curtains up: introducing the Z shell
http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/l-z.html?dwzone=linux
Die Zsh-Liebhaber-Seite
http://www.infodrom.north.de/~matthi/zsh/
ZSH-Liebhaberseite
http://michael-prokop.at/computer/tools_zsh_liebhaber.html
ZSH-Seite von Michael Prokop
http://www.michael-prokop.at/computer/tools_zsh.html
A Case for the Z Shell on http://www.daemonnews.org/
http://ezine.daemonnews.org/199910/zsh.html
ZSH-Section from Dotfiles.com
http://www.dotfiles.com/index.php3?app_id=4
Writing Zsh Completion Functions
http://www.linux-mag.com/2002-07/power_01.html
ZSH Prompt introduction
http://aperiodic.net/phil/prompt/
Adam's ZSH page
http://www.adamspiers.org/computing/zsh/
Zzappers Best of ZSH Tips
http://www.rayninfo.co.uk/tips/zshtips.html

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Last modified: [ 2004-09-07 18:43:38 ]